## (subhashitani) सुभाषितानि : Wise sayings in Sanskrit – 1 (on knowledge)

1. विद्या ददाति विनयं विनयाद्याति पात्रताम् ।
पात्रत्वाद्धनमाप्नोति धनाद्धर्मं ततःसुखम् ।।

– हितोपदेश

Knowledge gives humility. From humility comes the ability to perform activities well. From the ability to perform activities well, one earns wealth. From wealth comes the ability to follow Dharma, from which comes happiness.

2. सुखार्थिनः कुतो विद्या नास्ति विद्यार्थिनः सुखम् ।
सुखार्थी वा त्यजेद्विद्यां विद्यार्थी वा त्यजेत् सुखम् ।।

– महाभारत

Where is there any possibility of gaining knowledge for a seeker of pleasure? There is no pleasure for a seeker of knowledge. A seeker of pleasure should sacrifice the possibility of gaining knowledge. A seeker of knowledge should sacrifice pleasure.

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## Points to ponder

41.6% of India’s population lives on less than \$1.25 a day (World Bank, 2005).

With the inordinately and undeservedly high salaries that many of the IT professionals now get, most of us have lost sight of reality. Almost half of our countrymen live in excruciating poverty. There are countless children who live on the streets without a roof over their heads, who scourge for food among the waste lands of the cities, who have to struggle every day for their survival.

Remember this the next time you watch the IPL to get a sense of perspective, duty and responsibility.

It is a matter of unspeakable shame that many of us display a complete lack of sensitivity to the suffering of our brothers and sisters.

## A beautiful proof

There are some proofs, for which the very fact of being acquainted with the working of the mind which came up with such beautiful ideas can transport you to a state of ecstasy.

Georg Cantor (1845-1918) gave a beautifully simple proof for proving that the power set of the set of natural numbers (N) has “more” elements than the set N itself, i.e. 2^N is uncountably infinite.

Assume to the contrary that 2^N is countably infinite. In other words, there exists a bijection between the set N and the set 2^N. (This is what is meant by a set S being countably infinite, i.e. if a set S is countably infinite, then there exists a bijection between S and the set, N of natural numbers.)

2^N = {R_0, R_1, R_2, … }  [R_0, R_1 etc are elements of 2^N i.e. subsets of N.]

Assuming that 2^N is countably infinite implies that every element of 2^N is equal to R_i for some i \in N.

Now, consider this set. Call it D.

If  0 \in R_0, then 0 \notin D.
Else if, 0 \notin R_0, then 0 \in D.

Similarly, deciding whether or not each i \in N belongs to D, is done based on whether or not i belongs to R_i.

If R_i contains i, then we do not include i in D.

And if R_i does not contain i, then we include i in D.

What do we get now?

We get a set D that is different from each R_i. (It is different from R_5 in whether or not ‘5’ is contained in it; it is different from R_345 in whether or not ‘345’ is contained in it. Hence, D can not be equal to set R_5. And, D can not be equal to set R_345.)

So, we see that D can not be equal to any of the sets R_i.

But, D is also a subset of N.

Hence, D should ideally be an element of the power set of N. By assumption, 2^N = {R_i : i \in N}.

We just saw that D can not be equal to any R_i.

Hence D is NOT a part of 2^N.

This is a contradiction!

We are done. 2^N can not have a bijection with N. 2^N is uncountably infinite.

## Higher or Lower duty?

(Swami Vivekananda)

A certain king used to inquire of all the Sannyasins that came to his country, “Which is the greater man — he who gives up the world and becomes a Sannyasin, or he who lives in the world and performs his duties as a house holder?” Many wise men sought to solve the problem. Some asserted that the Sannyasin was the greater, upon which the king demanded that they should prove their assertion. When they could not, he ordered them to marry and become householders. Then others came and said, “The householder who performs his duties is the greater man.” Of them, too, the king demanded proofs. When they could not give them, he made them also settle down as householders.

At last there came a young Sannyasin, and the king similarly inquired of him also. He answered, “Each, O king, is equally great in his place.” “Prove this to me,” asked the king. “I will prove it to you,” said the Sannyasin, “but you must first come and live as I do for a few days, that I may be able to prove to you what I say.” The king consented and followed the Sannyasin out of his own territory and passed through many other countries until they came to a great kingdom. In the capital of that kingdom a great ceremony was going on. The king and the Sannyasin heard the noise of drums and music, and heard also the criers; the people were assembled in the streets in gala dress, and a great proclamation was being made. The king and the Sannyasin stood there to see what was going on. The crier was proclaiming loudly that the princess, daughter of the king of that country, was about to choose a husband from among those assembled before her.

It was an old custom in India for princesses to choose husbands in this way. Each princess had certain ideas of the sort of man she wanted for a husband. Some would have the handsomest man, others would have only the most learned, others again the richest, and so on. All the princes of the neighbourhood put on their bravest attire and presented themselves before her. Sometimes they too had their own criers to enumerate their advantages and the reasons why they hoped the princess would choose them. The princess was taken round on a throne, in the most splendid array, and looked at and heard about them. If she was not pleased with what she saw and heard, she said to her bearers, “Move on,” and no more notice was taken of the rejected suitors. If, however, the princess was pleased with any one of them, she threw a garland of flowers over him and he became her husband.

The princess of the country to which our king and the Sannyasin had come was having one of these interesting ceremonies. She was the most beautiful princess in the world, and the husband of the princess would be ruler of the kingdom after her father’s death. The idea of this princess was to marry the handsomest man, but she could not find the right one to please her. Several times these meetings had taken place, but the princess could not select a husband. This meeting was the most splendid of all; more people than ever had come to it. The princess came in on a throne, and the bearers carried her from place to place. She did not seem to care for any one, and every one became disappointed that this meeting also was going to be a failure. Just then came a young man, a Sannyasin, handsome as if the sun had come down to the earth, and stood in one corner of the assembly, watching what was going on. The throne with the princess came near him, and as soon as she saw the beautiful Sannyasin, she stopped and threw the garland over him. The young Sannyasin seized the garland and threw it off, exclaiming, “What nonsense is this? I am a Sannyasin. What is marriage to me?” The king of that country thought that perhaps this man was poor and so dared not marry the princess, and said to him, “With my daughter goes half my kingdom now, and the whole kingdom after my death!” and put the garland again on the Sannyasin. The young man threw it off once more, saying, “Nonsense! I do not want to marry,” and walked quickly away from the assembly.

Now the princess had fallen so much in love with this young man that she said, “I must marry this man or I shall die”; and she went after him to bring him back. Then our other Sannyasin, who had brought the king there, said to him, “King, let us follow this pair”; so they walked after them, but at a good distance behind. The young Sannyasin who had refused to marry the princess walked out into the country for several miles. When he came to a forest and entered into it, the princess followed him, and the other two followed them. Now this young Sannyasin was well acquainted with that forest and knew all the intricate paths in it. He suddenly passed into one of these and disappeared, and the princess could not discover him. After trying for a long time to find him she sat down under a tree and began to weep, for she did not know the way out. Then our king and the other Sannyasin came up to her and said, “Do not weep; we will show you the way out of this forest, but it is too dark for us to find it now. Here is a big tree; let us rest under it, and in the morning we will go early and show you the road.”

Now a little bird and his wife and their three little ones lived on that tree, in a nest. This little bird looked down and saw the three people under the tree and said to his wife, “My dear, what shall we do? Here are some guests in the house, and it is winter, and we have no fire.” So he flew away and got a bit of burning firewood in his beak and dropped it before the guests, to which they added fuel and made a blazing fire. But the little bird was not satisfied. He said again to his wife, “My dear, what shall we do? There is nothing to give these people to eat, and they are hungry. We are householders; it is our duty to feed any one who comes to the house. I must do what I can, I will give them my body.” So he plunged into the midst of the fire and perished. The guests saw him falling and tried to save him, but he was too quick for them.

The little bird’s wife saw what her husband did, and she said, “Here are three persons and only one little bird for them to eat. It is not enough; it is my duty as a wife not to let my husband’s effort go in vain; let them have my body also.” Then she fell into the fire and was burned to death.

Then the three baby-birds, when they saw what was done and that there was still not enough food for the three guests, said, “Our parents have done what they could and still it is not enough. It is our duty to carry on the work of our parents; let our bodies go too.” And they all dashed down into the fire also.

Amazed at what they saw, the three people could not of course eat these birds. They passed the night without food, and in the morning the king and the Sannyasin showed the princess the way, and she went back to her father.

Then the Sannyasin said to the king, “King, you have seen that each is great in his own place. If you want to live in the world, live like those birds, ready at any moment to sacrifice yourself for others. If you want to renounce the world, be like that young man to whom the most beautiful woman and a kingdom were as nothing. If you want to be a householder, hold your life a sacrifice for the welfare of others; and if you choose the life of renunciation, do not even look at beauty and money and power. Each is great in his own place, but the duty of the one is not the duty of the other.

## Thoughts

Life is simple. Let it be that way. 🙂

Don’t be overly attached to anything.

Don’t have unrealistic expectations.

What is there to worry about? Nothing.

Buddha’s first noble truth: Life sucks. (So, why complain and crib?)

Be kind.

Be caring.

Can you change your past? No. Let go of everything.

Laughter is the best medicine.

(Sleep is also very good.) 🙂

What is there to be afraid of? Nothing.

Don’t think too much. Live like a child.

(Too much analysis leads to paralysis. 🙂  (ISKCON) )

Get perspective.

Why do we grieve? Is it because of something that happened to us? No, it is because of our attitude towards what happened.

If someone calls you a dog, and you think about the incident three more times, you have allowed that person to call you a dog three more times. (Ajahn Brahm)

Death is a part of life. Why grieve about death? 🙂

## The Emperor’s three questions

(Leo Tolstoy)
One day it occurred to a certain emperor that if he only knew the answers to
three questions, he would never stray in any matter.

What is the best time to do each thing? Who are the most important people to
work with? What is the most important thing to do at all times?

The emperor issued a decree throughout his kingdom announcing that whoever
could answer the questions would receive a great reward. Many who read the
decree made their way to the palace at once, each person with a different
answer.

In reply to the first question, one person advised that the emperor make up a
thorough time schedule, consecrating every hour, day, month, and year for
certain tasks and then follow the schedule to the letter. Only then could he
hope to do every task at the right time.

Another person replied that it was impossible to plan in advance and that the
emperor should put all vain amusements aside and remain attentive to everything
in order to know what to do at what time.

Someone else insisted that, by himself, the emperor could never hope to have
all the foresight and competence necessary to decide when to do each and every
task and what he really needed was to set up a Council of the Wise and then to
act according to their advice.

Someone else said that certain matters required immediate decision and could
not wait for consultation, but if he wanted to know in advance what was going
to happen he should consult magicians and soothsayers.

The responses to the second question also lacked accord.

One person said that the emperor needed to place all his trust in
administrators, another urged reliance on priests and monks, while others
recommended physicians. Still others put their faith in warriors.

The third question drew a similar variety of answers. Some said science was the
most important pursuit. Others insisted on religion. Yet others claimed the
most important thing was military skill.

The emperor was not pleased with any of the answers, and no reward was given.

After several nights of reflection, the emperor resolved to visit a hermit who
lived up on the mountain and was said to be an enlightened man. The emperor
wished to find the hermit to ask him the three questions, though he knew the
hermit never left the mountains and was known to receive only the poor,
refusing to have anything to do with persons of wealth or power. So the emperor
disguised himself as a simple peasant and ordered his attendants to wait for
him at the foot of the mountain while he climbed the slope alone to seek the
hermit.

Reaching the holy man's dwelling place, the emperor found the hermit digging a
garden in front of his hut. When the hermit saw the stranger, he nodded his
head in greeting and continued to dig. The labor was obviously hard on him. He
was an old man, and each time he thrust his spade into the ground to turn the
earth, he heaved heavily.

The emperor approached him and said, "I have come here to ask your help with
three questions: When is the best time to do each thing? Who are the most
important people to work with? What is the most important thing to do at all
times?"

The hermit listened attentively but only patted the emperor on the shoulder and
continued digging. The emperor said, "You must be tired. Here, let me give you
a hand with that." The hermit thanked him, handed the emperor the spade, and
then sat down on the ground to rest.

After he had dug two rows, the emperor stopped and turned to the hermit and
repeated his three questions. The hermit still did not answer, but instead
stood up and pointed to the spade and said, "Why don't you rest now? I can take
over again." But the emperor continued to dig. One hour passed, then two.
Finally the sun began to set behind the mountain. The emperor put down the
spade and said to the hermit, "I came here to ask if you could answer my three
questions. But if you can't give me any answer, please let me know so that I
can get on may way home."

The hermit lifted his head and asked the emperor, "Do you hear someone running
over there?" The emperor turned his head. They both saw a man with a long white
beard emerge from the woods. He ran wildly, pressing his hands against a bloody
wound in his stomach. The man ran toward the emperor before falling unconscious
to the ground, where he lay groaning. Opening the man's clothing, the emperor
and hermit saw that the man had received a deep gash. The emperor cleaned the
wound thoroughly and then used his own shirt to bandage it, but the blood
completely soaked it within minutes. He rinsed the shirt out and bandaged the
wound a second time and continued to do so until the flow of blood had stopped.

At last the wounded man regained consciousness and asked for a drink of water.
The emperor ran down to the stream and brought back a jug of fresh water.
Meanwhile, the sun had disappeared and the night air had begun to turn cold.
The hermit gave the emperor a hand in carrying the man into the hut where they
laid him down on the hermit's bed. The man closed his eyes and lay quietly. The
emperor was worn out from the long day of climbing the mountain and digging the
garden. Leaning against the doorway, he fell asleep. When he rose, the sun had
already risen over the mountain. For a moment he forgot where he was and what
he had come here for. He looked over to the bed and saw the wounded man also
looking around him in confusion. When he saw the emperor, he stared at him
intently and then said in a faint whisper, "Please forgive me."

"But what have you done that I should forgive you?" the emperor asked.

"You do not know me, your majesty, but I know you. I was your sworn enemy, and
I had vowed to take vengeance on you, for during the last war you killed my
brother and seized my property. When I learned that you were coming alone to
the mountain to meet the hermit, I resolved to surprise you on your way back to
kill you. But after waiting a long time there was still no sign of you, and so
I left my ambush in order to seek you out. But instead of finding you, I came
across your attendants, who recognized me, giving me this wound. Luckily, I
escaped and ran here. If I hadn't met you I would surely be dead by now. I had
intended to kill you, but instead you saved my life! I am ashamed and grateful
beyond words. If I live, I vow to be your servant for the rest of my life, and
I will bid my children and grandchildren to do the same. Please grant me your
forgiveness."

The emperor was overjoyed to see that he was so easily reconciled with a former
enemy. He not only forgave the man but promised to return all the man's
property and to send his own physician and servants to wait on the man until he
was completely healed. After ordering his attendants to take the man home, the
emperor returned to see the hermit. Before returning to the palace the emperor
wanted to repeat his three questions one last time. He found the hermit sowing
seeds in the earth they had dug the day before.

The hermit stood up and looked at the emperor. "But your questions have already
been answered."

"How's that?" the emperor asked, puzzled.

"Yesterday, if you had not taken pity on my age and given me a hand with
digging these beds, you would have been attacked by that man on your way home.
Then you would have deeply regretted not staying with me. Therefore the most
important time was the time you were digging in the beds, the most important
person was myself, and the most important pursuit was to help me. Later, when
the wounded man ran up here, the most important time was the time you spent
dressing his wound, for if you had not cared for him he would have died and you
would have lost the chance to be reconciled with him. Likewise, he was the most
important person, and the most important pursuit was taking care of his wound.
Remember that there is only one important time and is Now. The present moment
is the only time over which we have dominion. The most important person is
always the person with whom you are, who is right before you, for who knows if
you will have dealings with any other person in the future. The most important
pursuit is making that person, the one standing at you side, happy, for that
alone is the pursuit of life."

## the way

the hand that prods you
Written is the destiny of this Creation
by the same hand;
So go on my friend.

the stage that envelops you
Played out is the entire cosmic play
on the same stage;
So go on my friend.

the water that wets you
Inundated is this entire manifestation
by that same water;
So go on my friend.

the spark that burns within you
Permeated is everything
by that same spark;
So go on my friend. 🙂