Sanskrit Lesson 5 – Sentences

This lesson we’ll translate English sentences into Sanskrit, and also learn a few new words.

He is a boy. = सः बालकः अस्ति |

( boy = बालकः, is = अस्ति )

I am a boy. = अहं बालकः अस्मि |   ( am = अस्मि )

(Note that सः … अस्ति | and  अहं … अस्मि | )

Similarly, we have the sentence: You are a boy. = त्वं बालकः असि |

(Again note that: त्वं …  असि |)

Now, regarding द्विवचन.

They (two + masculine) read a book. = तौ पुस्तकं पठतः |

They (two + feminine) read a book. = ते पुस्तकं पठतः |

Please note: तौ … पठतः, and ते …पठतः (That is, with द्विवचन  (whether masculine or feminine) we have  पठतः )

Finally, we come to बहुवचन.

They (masculine) read a book. = ते पुस्तकं पठन्ति |

They (feminine) read a book. = ताः पुस्तकं पठन्ति |

Again note: ते … पठन्ति | and ताः … पठन्ति | (That is, with बहुवचन (whether masculine or feminine) we have पठन्ति )

Till now we have seen masculine and feminine. Now, we shall consider the neuter gender.

Instead of सः (as in masculine) and ता (as in feminine), the word for “that” in neuter gender is तत् .

Example: That is a fruit. = तत् फलम् अस्ति |  (fruit = फलम् )

Another example of neutral noun: जलम् = water

Sentence: बालकः जलं पिबति | (The boy drinks water.)

We saw a new verb: पिब् = to drink.

Sanskrit is very rich in synonyms. Let us see one here.

जलम् = तोयम् = water.

Some other new nouns:

horse = अश्वः    (masculine)
elephant = गजः    (masculine)
tortoise = कच्छपः (masculine)

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