Verses from Srimad Bhagavad Gita – 2

Here are three verses from Chapter 2 of Srimad Bhagavad Gita. This is taken from Srila Prabhupada’s writings which is available here.

Note: Verses [19, 20, 21] are below. Verses [14, 15, 16, 17, 18] are here ; and verses [22, 23, 24] are here.

Translation:

[19] Neither he who thinks the living entity the slayer nor he who thinks it slain is in knowledge, for the self slays not nor is slain.

[20] For the soul there is neither birth nor death at any time. He has not come into being, does not come into being, and will not come into being. He is unborn, eternal, ever-existing and primeval. He is not slain when the body is slain.

[21] O Pārtha, how can a person who knows that the soul is indestructible, eternal, unborn and immutable kill anyone or cause anyone to kill?


Sanskrit:

[19] ya enam vetti hantaram
yas cainam manyate hatam
ubhau tau na vijanito
nayam hanti na hanyate

[20] na jayate mriyate va kadacin
nayam bhutva bhavita va na bhuyah
ajo nityah sasvato ‘yam purano
na hanyate hanyamane sarire

[21] vedavinasinam nityam
ya enam ajam avyayam
katham sa purusah partha
kam ghatayati hanti kam

Samskritam:

(19)

BG219

(20)

BG220

(21)

BG221

(The Sanskrit texts have been taken from the Internet. Thanks to Sharadh for asking for these verses to be included.)

Verses from Srimad Bhagavad Gita

om ajnana-timirandhasya
jnananjana-salakaya
caksur unmilitam yena
tasmai sri-gurave namah

I was born in the darkest ignorance, and my spiritual master opened my eyes with the torch of knowledge. I offer my respectful obeisances unto him.

Lord Krishna instructs Arjuna on the battlefield of Kurukshetra, on spiritual knowledge. Arjuna, the great warrior, on seeing his relatives, gurus, and respected elders arrayed in the opposing army, feels mentally incapable of fighting against them; and decides it is better to die unarmed rather than fighting such persons. At this juncture, Krishna imparts the divine spiritual knowledge to the distraught Arjuna.

Here are verses from Chapter 2 of Bhagavad Gita, addressed by Krishna to Arjuna. These are from Srila Praphupada’s writings. The verses of the Bhagavad Gita are available here.

Note: Verses [14, 15, 16, 17, 18] are below. Verses [19, 20, 21] are here, and [22, 23, 24] are here.

[14] O son of Kunti, the nonpermanent appearance of happiness and distress, and their disappearance in due course, are like the appearance and disappearance of winter and summer seasons. They arise from sense perception, O scion of Bharata, and one must learn to tolerate them without being disturbed.

[15] O best among men [Arjuna], the person who is not disturbed by happiness and distress and is steady in both is certainly eligible for liberation.

[16] Those who are seers of the truth have concluded that of the nonexistent there is no endurance, and of the existent there is no cessation. This, the seers have concluded by studying the nature of both.

[17] Know that which pervades the entire body is indestructible. No one is able to destroy the imperishable soul.

[18] Only the material body of the indestructible, immeasurable and eternal living entity is subject to destruction; therefore, fight, O descendant of Bharata (i.e. Arjuna).

Here are the Sanskrit verses.

[14] matra-sparsas tu kaunteya
sitosna-sukha-duhkha-dah
agamapayino ‘nityas
tams titiksasva bharata

[15] yam hi na vyathayanty ete
purusam purusarsabha
sama-duhkha-sukham dhiram
so ‘mrtatvaya kalpate

[16] nasato vidyate bhavo
nabhavo vidyate satah
ubhayor api drsto ‘ntas
tv anayos tattva-darsibhih

[17] avinasi tu tad viddhi
yena sarvam idam tatam
vinasam avyayasyasya
na kascit kartum arhati

[18] antavanta ime deha
nityasyoktah saririnah
anasino ‘prameyasya
tasmad yudhyasva bharata

Samskritam:-

(14)

BG214

(15)

BG215

(16)

BG216

(17)

BG217

(18)

BG218

Bhaja Govindam (Worship Govinda, O fool!)

Bhaja Govindam was composed by Sri Adi Shankara. Shankara (788 – 820 CE) is one of the greatest philosopher-saints ever. Here is an article on Shankara.

Here are ten verses from Bhaja Govindam divinely sung by M.S. Subbulakshmi.

Translation in English (of the ten verses sung above.)

1. Adore the Lord, adore the Lord, adore the Lord, O fool! when the appointed time (for departure) comes, the repetition of grammatical rules will not, indeed, save you.

2. O fool! leave the desire for accumulation of wealth; create in the mind, thoughts about Reality, devoid of passion. What you get – i.e. what you have achieved through your past deeds – with that, satisfy your mind.

3. As long as you have the ability to earn money, so long will your dependents be attached to you. After that, when you live with an infirm body no one would even speak a word to you.

4. Do not be proud of wealth, kindred, and youth; Time takes away all these in a moment. Leaving aside this entire (world) which is of the nature of an illusion, and knowing the state of Brahman, enter into it.

5. Living in temples or at the foot of trees, sleeping on the ground, wearing deer-skin, renouncing all possessions and their enjoyment – to whom will not dispassion bring happiness?

6. For him, who has studied the Bhagavadgitá even a little, who has drunk a drop of the Gañgá-water, and who has performed the worship of the Destroyer of the demon Mura (i.e. Krishna) at least once, there is no tiff with Yama (the lord of death).

7. Repeated birth, repeated death, and repeated lying in mother’s womb – this transmigratory process is extensive and difficult to cross; save me, O Destroyer of Mura (O Krishna), through Your grace!

8. The Bhagavadgitá and the Sahasranáma should be sung; the form of the Lord of Lakshmi (Vishnu) should always be meditated on; the mind should be led to the company of the good; and wealth should be distributed among the indigent.

9. `Wealth is no good’; thus reflect always; there is not the least happiness therefrom; this is the truth. For the wealthy, there is fear even from a son; everywhere this is the regular mode.

10. Being devoted completely to the lotus-feet of the Master, become released soon from the transmigratory process. Thus, through the discipline of sense and mind-control, you will behold the Deity that resides in your heart.

Sanskrit:

1.

bhajagovindam bhajagovindam
govindam bhajamuudhamate
sampraapte sannihite kaale
nahi nahi rakshati dukrijnkarane

2.

mudha jahiihi dhanaagamatrishhnaam
kuru sadbuddhim manasi vitrishhnaam
yallabhase nijakarmopaattam
vittam tena vinodaya chittam

3.

yaavadvittopaarjana saktah
staavannija parivaaro raktah
pashchaajjiivati jarjara dehe
vaartaam koapi na prichchhati gehe

4.

maa kuru dhana jana yauvana garvam
harati nimeshhaatkaalah sarvam
maayaamayamidamakhilaM hitvaa
brahmapadaM tvaM pravisha viditvaa

5.

sura mandira taru muula nivaasah
shayyaa bhuutala majinam vaasah
sarva parigraha bhoga tyaagah
kasya sukham na karoti viraagah

6.

bhagavad giitaa kijnchidadhiitaa
gangaa jalalava kanikaapiitaa
sakridapi yena muraari samarchaa
kriyate tasya yamena na charchaa

7.

punarapi jananam punarapi maranam
punarapi jananii jathare shayanam
iha samsaare bahudustaare
kripayaa apaare paahi muraare

8.

geyam giitaa naama sahasram
dhyeyam shriipati ruupamajasram
neyam sajjana sange chittam
deyam diinajanaaya cha vittam

9.

arthamanartham bhaavaya nityam
naastitatah sukhaleshah satyam
putraadapi dhana bhaajaam bhiitih
sarvatraishhaa vihiaa riitih

10.

gurucharanaambuja nirbhara bhakatah
samsaaraadachiraadbhava muktah
sendriyamaanasa niyamaadevam
drakshyasi nija hridayastham devam

Samskritam:

    भज गोविन्दं
    भजगोविन्दं भजगोविन्दं
    गोविन्दं भजमूढमते
    संप्राप्ते सन्निहिते काले
    नहि नहि रक्षति डुकृञ्करणे (1)
    मूढ जहीहि धनागमतृष्णां
    कुरु सद्बुद्धिं मनसि वितृष्णाम् .
    यल्लभसे निजकर्मोपात्तं
    वित्तं तेन विनोदय चित्तम् (2)
    यावद्वित्तोपार्जन सक्तः
    स्तावन्निज परिवारो रक्तः .
    पश्चाज्जीवति जर्जर देहे
    वार्तां कोऽपि न पृच्छति गेहे (3)

 

    मा कुरु धन जन यौवन गर्वं
    हरति निमेषात्कालः सर्वम् .
    मायामयमिदमखिलं हित्वा
    ब्रह्मपदं त्वं प्रविश विदित्वा (4)
    सुर मंदिर तरु मूल निवासः
    शय्या भूतल मजिनं वासः .
    सर्व परिग्रह भोग त्यागः
    कस्य सुखं न करोति विरागः(5)
    भगवद् गीता किञ्चिदधीता
    गङ्गा जललव कणिकापीता.
    सकृदपि येन मुरारि समर्चा
    क्रियते तस्य यमेन न चर्चा (6)

 

    पुनरपि जननं पुनरपि मरणं
    पुनरपि जननी जठरे शयनम् .
    इह संसारे बहुदुस्तारे
    कृपयाऽपारे पाहि मुरारे (7)
    गेयं गीता नाम सहस्रं
    ध्येयं श्रीपति रूपमजस्रम् .
    नेयं सज्जन सङ्गे चित्तं
    देयं दीनजनाय च वित्तम् (8)
    अर्थमनर्थं भावय नित्यं
    नास्तिततः सुखलेशः सत्यम् .
    पुत्रादपि धन भाजां भीतिः
    सर्वत्रैषा विहिआ रीतिः (9)
    गुरुचरणाम्बुज निर्भर भकतः
    संसारादचिराद्भव मुक्तः .
    सेन्द्रियमानस नियमादेवं
    द्रक्ष्यसि निज हृदयस्थं देवम् (10)
(All of the above: translation, and the texts: have been taken from different sites on the Internet.)

 

     

       

         

           

             

               


               

             

           

         

       

     

 

The Wonder that is Sanskrit – 4

Here are two verses, each of which when reversed creates a new verse. This passage is from the amazing book, “The Wonder that is Sanskrit”. See also the previous three posts from the same book.

sans9

san1

san2

san3

san4

san5

san6

san7

san8

The Wonder that is Sanskrit – 3

Here are three amazing verses. The first is an astonishing verse using only one consonant and vowel, while the next two are palindromic verses. These, as well as this and this, are from the wonderful book, “The Wonder that is Sanskrit”.

sans5

sans6

sans7

sans8

The Wonder that is Sanskrit – 2

Here are three amazing verses. The first two have written using only a single consonant, and the third is equally amazing! This passage, as well as this one, are excerpts from the wonderful book, “The Wonder that is Sanskrit”.

sanskrit3

sanskrit4

The wonder that is Sanskrit – 1

This is a passage from the excellent book, “The Wonder that is Sanskrit”.  There are some amazingly beautiful compositions in Sanskrit. Knowledge of the existence of such verses leaves one in awe of the genius minds that have mastered Sanskrit. The following anecdotes are from the time of Raja Bhoja, whose court was graced by the legendary Kalidasa.

sanskrit1

sanskrit2

Sanskrit Lesson 6 – Conversation

Here is a simple conversation in Sanskrit.

My name is Mohan. = मम नाम मोहनः अस्ति |

What is your name? = तव नाम किम् अस्ति ?

My name is Ram. = मम नाम रामः अस्ति |

I go to school everyday. = अहं प्रतिदिनं विद्यालयं गच्छामि |

Do you go to school?=  किं त्वं विद्यालयं गच्छसि ?

I also go to school for studying. = अहम् अपि पठनार्थम् विद्यालयं गच्छामि |

I will go to the playground in the evening.= अहं सायंकाले क्रीडाक्षेत्रं गच्छामि |

I will also come. = अहम् अपि आगमिष्यामि |

I will go with Ram. = अहं रामेण सह गमिष्यामि |

Let’s have a look at a few new words that we learnt here.

मम = my

तव = your

नाम = name

प्रतिदिनं = everyday

किम् त्वं = Do you?

पठनार्थम् = for studying

सायंकाले = in the evening

अपि = also

रामेण सह = with Ram

The last phrase above : रामेण सह is actually interesting and very common. The word सह means “with”. Its usage is as follows.

I go with Mohan. = अहं मोहनेन सह गच्छामि |

I go with Sita. = अहं सीतया सह गच्छामि |

I go with the boy. =  अहं बालकेन सह गच्छामि |

I go with the girl. = अहं बालिकया सह गच्छामि |

Now, the word for “boy” in Sanskrit is बालकः , while the word for “girl” is  बालिका .

Just like the phrase for “with Mohan” is “मोहनेन सह”, similarly the phrase for “with the boy” is “बालकेन सह” .

Again, the phrases for “with Sita” = “सीतया सह”, and “with the girl” = “बालिकया सह” are very similar.

At this stage, we have learnt quite a bit of conversational Sanskrit ( always nice to be optimistic :) ).

Let us see some more sentences using the words we have learnt (and some new ones).

My name is Sita. = मम नाम सीता अस्ति |

My friend’s name is Mohan.= मम मित्रस्य नाम मोहनः अस्ति |

I drink water.= अहं जलं पिबामि |

My friend also drinks water.=  मम मित्रम् अपि तोयं पिबति |

The monkey falls.= वानरः पतति |

She is a girl.= सा बालिका अस्ति |

She is also clever.= सा चतुरा अपि अस्ति |

He is clever. = सः चतुरः अस्ति |

New words that we saw in the above set of sentences:
मित्रम् = friend (Note that मित्रम् is neuter gender in Sanskrit. Doesn’t matter whether the friend is a boy or a girl. )
वानरः = monkey (वानरः, on the other hand, is masculine.)

Now this one’s interesting:
clever = चतुरः (for masculine), and चतुरा (for feminine). Thats why we have, चतुरः बालकः  and चतुरा बालिका.

End of lesson. Enjoy.

Sanskrit Lesson 5 – Sentences

This lesson we’ll translate English sentences into Sanskrit, and also learn a few new words.

He is a boy. = सः बालकः अस्ति |

( boy = बालकः, is = अस्ति )

I am a boy. = अहं बालकः अस्मि |   ( am = अस्मि )

(Note that सः … अस्ति | and  अहं … अस्मि | )

Similarly, we have the sentence: You are a boy. = त्वं बालकः असि |

(Again note that: त्वं …  असि |)

Now, regarding द्विवचन.

They (two + masculine) read a book. = तौ पुस्तकं पठतः |

They (two + feminine) read a book. = ते पुस्तकं पठतः |

Please note: तौ … पठतः, and ते …पठतः (That is, with द्विवचन  (whether masculine or feminine) we have  पठतः )

Finally, we come to बहुवचन.

They (masculine) read a book. = ते पुस्तकं पठन्ति |

They (feminine) read a book. = ताः पुस्तकं पठन्ति |

Again note: ते … पठन्ति | and ताः … पठन्ति | (That is, with बहुवचन (whether masculine or feminine) we have पठन्ति )

Till now we have seen masculine and feminine. Now, we shall consider the neuter gender.

Instead of सः (as in masculine) and ता (as in feminine), the word for “that” in neuter gender is तत् .

Example: That is a fruit. = तत् फलम् अस्ति |  (fruit = फलम् )

Another example of neutral noun: जलम् = water

Sentence: बालकः जलं पिबति | (The boy drinks water.)

We saw a new verb: पिब् = to drink.

Sanskrit is very rich in synonyms. Let us see one here.

जलम् = तोयम् = water.

Some other new nouns:

horse = अश्वः    (masculine)
elephant = गजः    (masculine)
tortoise = कच्छपः (masculine)

Sanskrit Lesson 4 – Plural

Hey, we’ve so far looked at only singular nouns in the first 3 lessons. In this lesson, we will introduce plural nouns.

Let’s look at a few examples:

Singular: He goes to school. = सः विद्यालयम् गच्छति |
Plural: They go to school. = ते विद्यालयम् गच्छन्ति |

Singular: I will eat. = अहं खादिष्यामि |
Plural: We will eat. =  वयं खादिष्यामः |

Singular: You play. = त्वं क्रीडसि |
Plural: You play. = यूयं क्रीडथ |

Singular in Sanskrit is called एकवचन; plural is divided into these categories:  excatly two (द्विवचन), and more than two (बहुवचन). We’ve seen एकवचन and बहुवचन.

Other examples:

We read (present tense) = वयं पठामः |
We will read = वयं पठिष्यामः |
We read (past tense). = वयं अपठाम|

They (masculine) go to the playground. = ते क्रीडाक्षेत्रम् गच्छन्ति |

They (feminine) run. = ताः धावन्ति |

Deer (plural) run. = मृगाः धावन्ति |

New verb: to run = धाव्.

New noun: deer (singular) = मृगः

Sanskrit Lesson 3 – Past Tense

Past tense in Sanksrit is simple. We’ll look at it through examples.

Present tense:
I eat. =   अहं खादामि |

Past tense:
I ate. =  अहम् अखादम् |

Present tense:
Mohan plays. = मोहनः क्रीडति |

Past tense:
Mohan played. = मोहनः अक्रीडत् |

Present tense:
You read. = त्वं पठसि |

Past tense:
You read. = त्वं अपठः |

Other sentences in past tense:

I played with a ball. = अहं कंदुकेन  अक्रीडम् |

He read a book. = सः पुस्तकम् अपठत् |

You went to school. = त्वं विद्यालयम् अगच्छः |

A new verb: Go/ going/ went / will go.

He goes. = सः गच्छति |

He went. = सः अगच्छत् |

He will go. = सः गमिष्यति |

I will go. = अहं गमिष्यामि |

Sanskrit Lesson 2 – Future Tense

This will introduce future tense. This is really simple if one knows the present tense.

For instance,  “I read” gets translated as   अहं पठामि, while “I will read” gets translated as “अहं पठिष्यामि”.

Similarly, You read = त्वं पठसि |   and    You will read = त्वं पठिष्यसि |

He/she reads =  सः/सा पठति |     and     He/she will read = सः/सा पठिष्यति |

I eat.     =    अहं खादामि |     and     I will eat = अहं खादिष्यामि |

Other examples:

I read a book.  =   अहं पुस्तकं पठामि |   and    I will read a book.  =  अहं पुस्तकं पठिष्यामि |

He/she eats food.  =   सः/सा भोजनं खादति |    and  He/she will eat food = सः/सा भोजनं खादिष्यति |

So, future tense was actually simple, wasn’t it?

Sanskrit Lesson 1 – Present Tense

Hey, welcome to a simple lesson in Sanskrit. We consider only simple present tense. It’s actually quite simple. Once you learn a few representative sentences, it becomes a lot easier.

I read.                        अहं पठामि |

You read.                   त्वं पठसि |

He/she reads.          सः/सा पठति |

What if we now go to “eating” instead of “reading”?

I eat.                           अहं खादामि |

You eat.                     त्वं खादसि |

He/she eats.             सः/सा खादति |

Some other verbs:

play = क्रीड;   fall = पत;

Now regarding sentences which have the following form: “The Actor performed Action on the Actee”.

I read a book.                 अहं पुस्तकं पठामि |

He/she eats food.          सः/सा भोजनं खादति |

Interesting aside: How to call people by name?

If you want to call out to सीता, you can say हे सीते |

You’ll call लता by लते.

You’ll call मोहनः as मोहन, and रामः as राम. (Note that there’s no हलंत anywhere.)

Also, नदी will be called as नदि.

End of chapter. Was writing just for fun. Enjoy. Bye.

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